Cancellation of the mandate – an exercise starting from the 17th century

MEXICO CITY. The consultation on the revocation of the mandate to remove the president or governor, when he does not have the support of the majority of citizens, took a practical form from 2000 to 2010. Latin Americaalthough this rule has existed since the 17th century Switzerland և USA.

Next April 10 will be the first time in Mexico when the President will present a meeting to cancel his mandate, which will be exercised through free, direct and secret ballot. To be mandatory, it must have the participation of at least 40% of the registered voters.

During the first three years of his presidency since the 2018 election campaign Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador He mentioned that it will be subject to public control, because “the people contribute, the people remove.”

In the commitment of 100 out of 82 that he undertook in The Zócalo Mexico City After complaining about the presidency in 2018, Lopez Obrador announced that he would hold a consultation to cancel his mandate.

Because, as I believe, I have said many times that the people contribute, the people remove. “The people are sovereign,” reads the commitment made by the head of the executive.

One year later, in 2019, the House of Representatives’s senators, by a majority of more than two-thirds of the votes of lawmakers from all parties, approved a constitutional amendment to repeal the number.

The Mexican Constitution states that in the event of the abolition of the presidency, the person presiding over the Congress of the Union will temporarily assume the property of the executive branch. And within the next 30 days, the legislature must appoint a replacement chairman to complete the six-year term.

IN THE WORLD

In America, besides Mexico, there are 9 countries that consider the abolition of the mandate in their legal field. while in Ecuador, Venezuela, Bolivia, Peru, Panama, Argentina, in Colombia it exists in different forms, or it is hard to believe in Cuba.

In Ecuador, Venezuela and Bolivia, this figure refers to the control of the president ապետ governors, while in Peru, Argentina, Colombia, Panama, it refers only to the governors և local authorities, while Cuba has a law on the recall of elected officials. People’s Power “since 1999.

The most prominent of these consultations are the presidents of Venezuela, Hugo Chavez (2004), Bolivia (2008), Evo Morales (2008), who remained in office; , which was subject to cancellation (recall in English) on September 14, 2021.

Newsom remained in office with 64% of the vote, but in 2003 he was unlucky enough to be replaced by California Gov. Gray Dice, who was replaced by actor Arnold Schwarzenegger.

The abolition of the mandate in the United States has existed since 1631, when it was established by the General Court of the English Colony of Massachusetts, inspired by Swiss law.

The cancellation exercise in Switzerland is limited to six of the 26 cantons or administrative units of that country; it requires 2% to 30% of the signatures of the voters, depending on each territorial area.

In the United States, the figure is limited to the non-federal level: Alaska, Kansas, New Jersey, Arizona, Louisiana, North Dakota, California, among others.

There are similar repeal laws in countries such as Taiwan, Ethiopia, Liechtenstein, Nigeria and Palau, among others.

MEXICAN CANCELLATION

The cancellation of the mandate approved by the Union Assembly in 2019 refers to the figure of the President of the Republic, the governors, in the latter case, in accordance with the local legislation of each entity.

According to the calculation Belisario Dominguez Institute (IBD) By April 2022, only 14 states in the Senate have already recognized the abolition of the mandate in their local constitutions as a democratic mechanism of direct participation, and 18 states have not yet been able to harmonize their legislation.

In the case of the President of the Republic, the declaration of invalidity means the National Electoral Institute (MES), at the request of the citizens, equivalent to 3% of the number of registered voters, which corresponds to at least 17. subjects, federal.

Cancellation consultation may be requested once և within three months after the end of the third year of the constitutional period, on a day that does not coincide with federal or local election days as required by law.

It is directly the exclusive prerogative of the INE, the organization of the voting, the elaboration և the calculation, for which the body will publish the results of the process of revoking the mandate of the head of the federal executive, which can be challenged to the Superior. Chamber of the Electoral Court of the Judiciary of the Federation (TEPJF).

In this case, that: High quality TEPJF room will finalize the cancellation process once the challenges are addressed. In his case, he would spread the announcement of cancellation.

The Constitution prohibits the collection of signatures of citizens demanding the abolition of the use of public resources, as well as propaganda for the abolition of the mandate, as IRI և local non-governmental organizations are the only ones that can promote citizen participation.

For the process to be mandatory, at least 40% of the list, which corresponds to 37,129,287 Mexican citizens, had to participate in it. It should be remembered that only 7% of voters took part in the popular consultation on the “trial of former presidents” held in August 2021, so it had no real validity.

HISTORICAL YEAR IN MEXICO

On Sunday, April 10, 57,500 kiosks will be set up in the country, of which 57,200 will correspond to the sections to which the national territory is divided, and 300 will be special kiosks for transit citizens, ie one pavilion for each of the 300. regions into which the country is divided.

All people who are over 18 years old և have their INE credentials with a valid photo can participate, և even those who are valid until last year, ie 2021, will receive it.

At the “Find your box” website https://ubicatucasilla.ine.mx/ you can find the place where the box will be placed for voting.

More than 94 million ballots were printed for the cancellation exercise, which are maintained by the army in each of the 300 constituencies.

during the sitting INC General Electoral CouncilIn late February, Lorenzo Cordova, an adviser to the president, announced that a total of 1,692.5 million pesos would be spent on revoking the mandate after the austerity measures were approved.

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