Lograron revivir organos de cerdos una hora después de su muerte

Photograph provided by the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Maryland (EE.UU.) showing the surgeon Bartley P. Griffith (c) during a transplant of a genetically modified pig heart to patient David Bennett, at the Medical Center of the Universidad de Maryland en Baltimore, Maryland (EE.UU.), el 7 de enero 2022. (EFE/EPA/University of Maryland School of Medicine
Photograph provided by the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Maryland (EE.UU.) showing the surgeon Bartley P. Griffith (c) during a transplant of a genetically modified pig heart to patient David Bennett, at the Medical Center of the Universidad de Maryland en Baltimore, Maryland (EE.UU.), el 7 de enero 2022. (EFE/EPA/University of Maryland School of Medicine

A group of scientists managed to resume blood flow and successfully revive the vital organs of dead pigs con una tecnologia que parece prometedora para el trasplante de organos y blur even more the line between life and death.

The investigation, published yesterday in the journal Nature, challenges the assumption that the death of the fabric is rapid and irreversible, because científicos pudieron restore la funcio de varios órganos una hora después de que los corazones de los cerdos se detuvion.

The most recent findings raise a series of questions, among them, si será necesario revisar las determinaciones medicas y biológicas de la muerte”, indicated Brendan Parent, director of research on policies and ethics of transplants Faculty of Medicine Grossman of the University of New Yorkque precisó that the findings can also force a rethinking of the processes of intensive human care.

In a new experiment, scientists were able to restore the function of various organs una hora después de que los corones de los doros se detuvion (Photo by Nathan Stirk/Getty Images)
In a new experiment, scientists were able to restore the function of various organs una hora después de que los corones de los doros se detuvion (Photo by Nathan Stirk/Getty Images)

Ya en 2019, The same team of researchers astounded the scientific community to restore cellular function in the brain of pigs within an hour after decapitation.. Ya se sabía que poco after a cardiac arrest, the blood already circulates through the body, resulting in a lack of circulation of oxygen and nutrients that triggers a series of processes that lead to cellular death and organ damage.

Los científicos han estado buscando formas de proteger las cells y los organos de este proceso durante años.

In their last investigation, the scientists provoked an attack on the heart of anesthetized pigs, which stopped the flow of blood and deprived their cells of oxygen (without oxygen, the cells of mammals die). Al cabo de una hora, inyectaron a los cadaveres un líquido que contenía la sangre de los cerdos (tomada mientras estaban vivos) y una forma sintética de hemoglobina, la proteina que transporta el oxygene en los globulos rojos.

También inyectaron medicamentos que protegen las céluas y evitan la formación de coágulos de sangre. The blood began to flow and many cells began to function again, including vital organs such as the heart, liver and kidneys. durante las siguientes seis horas. “Estas cells estaban funcionado horas después cuando no derivan haber funcionado. This demonstrates that it can stop cell loss,” he said Nenad Sestanprincipal author of the study and researcher of the University of Yale, in una rueda de prensa.

In the study, the blood in the pig began to flow and many cells began to function again, including vital organs such as the heart, liver and kidneys.
In the study, the blood in the pig began to flow and many cells began to function again, including vital organs such as the heart, liver and kidneys.

This is an experiment, researchers lederados but David Andrijevic de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Yale adaptaron una tecnologia llamada BrainEx para uso de todo el cuerpo y descubrieron que funcionaba mejor que una técnica estándar para agregar artificialmente oxigen a la sangrellamada oxygenation but extracorporeal membraneo ECMO, que se usa en los hospitales para ayudar a los pacientes cuyos los organos han fallado.

The adjusted system, designed by Andrijevic and two colleagues and called OrganEx, allowed oxygen to recirculate through the pigs’ bodies, preserving cells and organs one hour after cardiac arrest. The group had previously demonstrated that BrainEx could restore part of the activity in the cells of the pigs’ brains after hours of oxygen deprivation.

The findings are promising for conservation and organ transport before transplants, researchers said. aunque se mostraron reacios a specular sobre otros usos.

“Esto está muy lejos de usarse en humanos”, said Stephen Latham, director of the Yale Interdisciplinary Center for Bioethics, adding that the process will require much more study before scientists contemplate it in front of people. Others who did not participate in the investigation said that the findings have more ramifications: “Biological death seems more like a fall of domino chips, an event that unchains the next one,” said Dr. Martin Monti, professor of cognitive psychology at the University de California en Los Ángeles.

The findings are promising for conservancy and organ transport before transplants, the researchers said.  (EFE/NYU Langone Health/Joe Carrotta)
The findings are promising for conservancy and organ transport before transplants, the researchers said. (EFE/NYU Langone Health/Joe Carrotta)

Lo innovator de esta tecnologia es que esta caida puede detenerse en algunos órganos si solo se pueden restorer el entorno cellularo y los parametróticos metabólicos correctos. Las implicaciones potentiales, si esto alguna vez se traduce con éxito a los humanos, son enormes“, aggregated the expert. The researchers emphasized that the pigs did not suffer pain because they were anesthetized and they did not detect electrical activity in their brains.

Currently, I’m a technician perfusión en humanos llamada oxigenación por membrana extracorpórea (ECMO) se utiliza en entornos hospitalarios para ayudar a los pacientes cuyo corazón, pulmones o ambos han dejado de funcionar. The Yale team demonstrated that, after six hours of perfusion, OrganEx worked much better than ECMO in terms of making the fluids flow again in the arteries and organs.

While ECMO only delayed cellular death, OrganEx significantly improved cellular architecture in tissues, including the brain. Incluso activó programas geneticos involucrados en la reparación celular y la restaración de la función celular normal en los riñones, corazones e hígados de los cerdos 2 .

today ECMO was mainly implemented as an intervention to save the life of patients with serious cardiac and pulmonary diseases, pero ha habido un interes crèquente en usarlo para preserver organos en personas en las que la reanimación ha failedo. Los grandes avances en las technologías de fusión could algún día aumentar la probabilidad de que los medicios puedan reanimar a los pacientes, como señalaron los baarimentistas en 2019. Ese potencial también podría difficultar que los rujanos justifyquen éticamente el uso de la perfusión para recuperar organos transplantables después de que los hearts o los pulmones de los pacientes hayan dejado de funcionar.

The last findings raise a series of questions, among them, how will it be necessary to revise the medical and biological determinations of death?. Para estar mejor preparados para esa possibility, es posible que los medicos deban repensar cómo están utilizando los sistemas de fusión.

FOLLOW THE LEGEND:

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Histórico: trasplantaron un riñón de cerdo a un cuerpo humano y funcionó

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