Ó How does physical exercise benefit the brain?

The first indications that the muscles are affecting the brain

Compression of the gene generating molecules that directly benefits the brain 25 years after the publication of one of the works of Henriette van Praag, a post at the Salk Institute of Biological Studies in California. They work to examine the adult rats that do not have time in a straight course to those who do not. The data is sampled first and then in mammals the exercise inducing the birth of new neurons, or neurogenesis, in the brain of adult rats. These camouflage iban accumulated memorabilia in special memory and appendix.

Van Praag, who is now an associate professor at the Cerebro Stiles-Nicholson Institute of the Atlantic University of Florida, affirms that his disguise for casual algebra. In an earlier study, investigators were able to observe indications that algae are a component of an enriched entrails (where rats only have access to various stimuli, such as places to explode or juggle) generating new neurons. Assuming to find the critical factor. “Correct the wind in reality of one of the controls of my studio”, ríe.

“Van Praag’s work is fundamental to carcinogenic carcinoma with neurogenesis and major cerebral function, and it is important not only for the neurobiological community, but also for the walker and the researchers investigating exercise and muscles the interaction between the training, the muscles and the brain “, Profundiza Handschin.

In 2002, Bruce Spiegelman, a mobile biologist at the Dana-Farber Institute for Oncology and the Harvard Medical School, studied PCG1-alpha lipid protein that regulates the metabolism of activated and inactivated genes in the skin. Descubrió que aumentar de cantidad de esta proteina en ratones hacía que sus musculos fueran más fuertes, más rojos y tuvieran más vasos sanguíneos; how like your hubieran animals are entertaining while in the gymnasium without having to worry about a bit of correction.

By the way, the com- ponents com- pletely account for the fact that the muscles in the motion-producing hormone and other molecules (myocene lambs) that are liberated in the torrent of blood and in proportion to the benefits of the organ. As Spiegelman left the PGC1-alpha halaggo to answer the following: as the protein hare that the muscle paresca that is ejaculated, entonsces “tal vez también incite al muscular to secrete cosas that are produced enduring ejercicio”. Intonation utilizes the protein to ayudarle to find the responsive molecules of the valerian cells in the metabolism and immune function that the exercise promotes.

The culmination of 2012 with Spiegelman and his colleagues unraveling the iris, a free-flowing muscle due to the musculature. It does not matter that the iris transforms the white fat into beige fat. Given that the beige fat is low in calories (the difference between white fat and diamond fat), Spiegelman thinks that irisina podría ser la clave de cómo el eercicio combe la obesidad y la diabetes.

More pieces of rompecabezas encajaron alño siguente, led by Christiane Wrann, postdoctoral investigator entities working with Spiegelman, demonstrating that the muscle “hablaba” with the brain enduring the exercise. When irisin muscle cells are produced, the levels of the other neurotrophic factor derived from the brain (BDNF) are in the hippocampus, one of the primary regions of the brain that encapsulates the brain. All, the BDNF favors the sound and the creation of synapses and neurons, audoandolas to mature and increase the synaptic plasticity.

His son, Wrann, now a neuroscientist at Massachusetts General Hospital and the Harvard School of Medicine, compares the iris paper to exercise and cognitive function. The team compared genetically modified ratons to care irises with control rats that were produced by the molecule. During exercise, the control rattles provide the best results in a range that depends on the spatial memory and attachment. Irisina’s deficient ratones do not sample this very well, it suggests that irisina is what promotes these cognitive abilities.

When Wrann’s team examines the rats’ brains, which as groups of ratons produce neurons in response to exercise, the new neurons of the iris deficient irons are abnormally irregular, affecting their capacity to form cones. When the gene produced by the iris is added to the brain of the rats that care for the protein, it is the most fragile creature to distinguish between similar patterns, a ability that humans can find in order to locate a clump at a time. .

Exercise and neurodegenerative disease

Wrann’s team also desecrated that irisina parieta despepeñe a papel in protection against neurodegeneration. Investigators create ratones that look like iris and only have symptoms similar to Alzheimer’s. These rats are doubly affected by experimenting more rapidly than rats that solely process Alzheimer’s disease, and show greater cognitive activity when stabilizing iris production.

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Wrann sospecha that one of the forms in which irisina ayuda is due to amortization the inflammation caused by the malfunctioning of the immune system of the brain. This system is formed primarily by cells denominated by microglia and astrocytes, which normally begin to reduce cerebral and lymphatic infertility while resting in a lesion. As an embargo, given that mammals are growing, these cells can be permanently activated as they tend to pass aggravated and interfere with neuronal function, primarily by connecting the connections between neurons and measuring each other.

This activity provokes chronic cerebral inflammation associated with the treatment of neurodegenerative enzymes, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. However, laboratory rats treated with iris only reduce inflammation in the hippocampus, reducing microglia and astrocytes, suggesting that irisina ayudó a frenar la respuesta inmunitaria desquiciada.

¿What are the results applicable to humans? See how many preliminary works have been done in Wrann’s lab and other teams. Irisina has an identical molecular structure in ratons and in humans, dice, but it suggests complete set of similar functions in specific embassies.

The results have interesting implications for the neurological benefits of exercise, which the studio studios elevated levels of irisina in the blood of persons deprived of an entrenement. However, post-mortem analyzes of Alzheimer’s patients’s brains revealed a reduction of 70 per cent of the iris iris precursor molecule in comparison with edema masses, suggesting that the iris could be neuroprotectant.

From the point of view of the therapeutic vision, “irisina is literally prometheus”, composed by Handschin, “especially given the data on its effect on the brain”. It is advised that irisina should not be superimposed on trying to get rid of the drugs. “Queda por ver si esto da resultado en patients patients.”

Depression, anxiety and depression in the living state

Handschin is interested in the interactions between muscles, exercise, state of mind and motivation. In an effort not to be publicized, the group examines the effect that the resulting molecular molecules produce on the disposition of ratones and corrects in a stream. The animals that take care of these factors have the capacity to cut, but do not waste, an atypical behavior before the rats, which only flow about 10 kilometers per day.

“It must be learned in the muscle that sends it to the brain and the reduction of algae modo is the impulse to strike after the fight,” Handschin said.

The prominence of this camp for the treatment of trauma patients at the enimo stage (above all grave depression) is of interest to Spiegelman, who calls it one of the great necessities of medical care. “Grave depression is the main cause of suicide, and is especially common in young people,” he said. Currently, you and your colleagues are evaluating the impact of iris on induced depression by associating experimental rat rat patterns.

Y the conversion of the brain during exercise does not limit the muscles. It interacts with molecules (mainly proteins) segregated by the egg, fat and mucous membranes to stimulate the brain to stimulate nausea, avoid depression, etc.

With pharmacologically viable candidates such as irises and others on the horizon, Rodriguez, of the University of Alabama, cries that “we are in the cascade of a great age of desecration that is about to translate into the clinic.”

The blast during the investigation into musculoskeletal diphtheria offered as much compensation as possible, advised Karina Alviña, adjunct professor of neuroscience at the University of Florida School of Medicine. Most molecules are affected by multiple systems of multiple maneuvers, which means that the potential algebra is enormous, so that the various dependencies can be placed on a cube shell. Design a form that has no consequent consequences and does not have a large, secure surface.

As such, Alviña finds a medium of expectation in the investigation that ella and otros are staring at the cape, which suggests that “the entrails and nestra choices of the vida style can have a great effect in the form in which we live”, says Alviñ . This means that depending on the size of the carrier, it is more salutable and has a higher calorific value than the steering wheel.

“As if you were trying to get a haircut, series: active moment, while the sea was moving for a few minutes. If you can, happy.”

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