“Russia is the principal threat”, says NATO in its central document

(CNN Español) — “Russia is the most important and direct threat to security”, says NATO, without mitigation, in its new Strategic Concept – the document that defines the role of the alliance in the next decade – approved on Wednesday at the summit in Madrid.

The Organización del Tratado del Atlántico Norte (OTAN) parece volver, de esta manera y en espíritu, a su primer Concepto Estratégico de October de 1949 —the year of its foundation—, cuando sus principales roles eran disuadir una agresión de parte de la Unión Soviet, y actuar militarmente en caso de un attack.

The 2022 document, the eighth since the creation of NATO, clearly turned Russia around.

Pero también hace mención —but primera vez— al desafíos que significa China para la seguridad, los interes y los valores de la Alianza Atlántica, y califica al cambio climática como uno de los “defíos determinantes de nuestro tiempo”.

Una decada de cambios

It shows, too, a clear change from the previous Concepto Estratégico de 2010, approved in Lisbon, which sought to cooperate with Russia and qualified for “strategic importance” in the relationship between NATO and Moscow.

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But in the turbulent decade from Lisbon to Madrid, the relationship between Russia and NATO began to collapse first with the Russian annexation of the peninsula of Crimea in 2014 and the support of Moscow to the rebels in the east of Ukraine this same year; luego con los interes contrarios en la guerra civil en Syria, donde Moscú y Washington apoyaron contraria factions; seguido por las accusations of Russian interference in las elecciones estudiantes de 2016, en el marco de una escalada de cyberataques que ha no parado de crecer; and finally the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022, just when the world began to emerge from the covid-19 pandemic.

Qué dice el Concepto Estratégico 2022 about Russia

En el prefacio del documento, que habla de un mundo “en disputa e impredicible”, los leaders de la OTAN assured mantenerse firmes en la decisión de “proteger a nuestros mil millones de ciudadanos, defender nuestro territorio y safeguardar nuestra libertad y democracia”.

“The war of aggression of the Russian Federation against Ukraine has destroyed peace and gravely altered our security environment. Its brutal and illegal invasion, repeated violations of international humanitarian law and atrocious attacks and atrocities have caused suffering and destruction indescribables”, aggregates.

Before NATO, the “strong and independent” Ukraine is essential to the stability of the Euro-Atlantic zone, and the actual behavior of Moscow is part of the “patron of aggressive actions against its neighbors and the trans-Atlantic community in general”.

Estas son las principales conclusionos de la cumbre de la OTAN 3:35

“La zona euroatlántica no está en paz”

Then, in its section on roles and principles, NATO already made it clear that the Euro-Atlantic zone “is not at peace” and argued that Russia has violated the norms and principles that contribute to a stable and predictable European security order.

“The Russian Federation is the most important and direct threat to the security of the Allies and to peace and stability in the Euro-Atlantic zone. It seeks to establish spheres of influence and direct control through coercion, subversion, aggression and annexation” , says the document approved in Madrid by the 30 members of NATO.

“El acumulamiento de fuerzas militares de Moscú, incluso en las regiones del Báltico, el mar Negro y el Mediterráneo, junto con su integration military con Belarús, defían nuestra seguridad e interes”.

At the same time, NATO assures in the document that it does not seek a confrontation with Russia and that it is not a threat, something that has been questioned by the president of Russia, Vladimir Putin, who has blamed the expansion of the Atlantic Alliance by leaving current voltage. NATO rejects these accusations.

“Seguimos dispuestos a mantener abiertos los canales de comunicación con Moscú para managera y mitigar los risgos, prevenir la escalada y aumentar la transparency”, aggregate.

Otras conclusionos: terrorism, China y cambio climática.

La OTAN considers that terrorism, in all its forms and manifestations, is “persistent” and constitutes the most direct “asymmetric threat” to the citizens of the member countries and to international prosperity and peace.

Turkey accepts that Sweden and Finland join NATO 3:39

This is the first time that a Strategic Concept of NATO identifies China as a threat to the interests, security and values ​​of the Alliance.

In concrete terms, NATO says that China is using economic, political and military tools to grow its global influence, while deliberately concealing its intentions while still concealing “malicious” hybrid and cyber operations.

“Utilize your economic power before creating strategic dependencies and increase your influence. If you try to subvert the international order based on norms, including in the spatial, cyber and maritime domains”, says the document, which also highlights that the increasing cooperation between China and Russia constituy otra amenaza.

El cambio climática es uno de los “desafíos determinantes de nuestro tiempo”, says the document, y asegura que puede “exacerbar los conflictos, la fragilidad y la competition geopolitica”.

What did the previous NATO Strategic Concept say?

En un tono muy diferente, el Concepto Estratégico de 2010, approved in November of this year in Lisboa, Portugal, aseguraba que “currently, the Euro-Atlantic zone is in peace and the threat of a conventional attack against the territory of the NATO is low” .

Russia is a threat to NATO

Jens Stoltenberg, Secretary General of NATO, during the summit in Madrid.

“Se trata de un éxito histórico para las políticas de defense robusta, integración euroatlántica y asociación activa que han guido a la OTAN durante más de medio siglo”, he said.

Advertía, sin embargo, of four possible threats: the growth of armed forces in different parts of the world, the proliferation of nuclear weapons and massive destruction, cyber attacks and terrorism.

About Russia, the document said that the relationship between the Alliance and Moscow was of “strategic importance” and contributed to peace, stability and security. This relationship was based on the framework of the Acta Fundacional de Relaciones Mutuas, Cooperación y Seguridad entre la OTAN y Rusia.

“A pesar de las diferencias en determinadas questions, we are still convinced that the security of NATO and Russia is intertwined and that a strong and constructive association based on mutual trust, transparency and predictability can serve mejor a nuestra security” , said the document.

Three years later, in March 2014, Russia annexed the peninsula of Crimea and started the war in the Donbás between Ukraine and rebels supported by Moscow, the antecedent of the actual invasion.

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