Si Taiwan no es un país independiente, ¿tiene su propio espacio aereo?

(CNN) — China gives a preview on Wednesday of what could happen to Taiwan when it sends 27 fighter jets to the island’s air defense identification zone, a zone of amortization of air space commonly known as ADIZ, according to the Ministry of Defense of Taiwan.

Twenty of these planes crossed the media line of the Strait of Taiwan, an unprecedented number since the island began to publish information on the incursions of China in its ADIZ two years ago, a flight map provided by the ministry.

Las incursiones se producen cuando China inicia ejercicios militares en torno a Taiwan pre protest por la visita esta semana de la presidente de la Cámara de Representantes de Estados United States, Nancy Pelosi.

The Chinese Ministry of Defense published a map of six zones around the island where aerial and maritime exercises, and long-range real fire exercises, were planned, as part of what a portmanteau described as a “blockade”. Se ha advertido a los barcos y aviones que se mantengan fuera de las áreas durante los simulacros.

The exercise areas announced by Beijing extend up to Taiwan’s ADIZ and in some cases invade the island’s territorial airspace, an area recognized by international law that extends 12 nautical miles (22.2 kilometers) from the coast.

Los analysts say that it is an extremely provocative movement.

Carl Schuster, excapitán de la Marina de EE.UU. and former director of operations of the Joint Intelligence Center of the US Pacific Command, said that China is going “much más lejos que neverca” to bring its military assets to the coasts of Taiwan.

Las amenazas de Beijing have provoked much discussion about what exactly constitutes Taiwan’s air space and how it is recognized by international law.

This is what you need to know.

What is the aerial space of a country?

According to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the territorial limits of a country extend 12 nautical miles (22.2 kilometers) from its coast.

The previous area considered the territorial air space of the country, according to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, which also stipulates that governmental or military aircraft cannot fly over the territory of another country without permission.

China is a signatory to UNCLOS, signed on December 10, 1982 and ratified in 1996. Taiwan is not.

Si Taiwan no es un país independiente, ¿tiene su propio espacio aereo?

El status en disputa de Taiwan hace que esta pregunta sea difícil de responder de manera definitive.

Si bien Taiwan es una democracia de autogobierno, mainland China insist en que tiene soberanía sobre la isla y se opone ferozmente a cualquier sugerencia de que pueda ser considerado un país independiente.

The majority of countries in the world do not recognize Taiwan as an independent country, and maintain diplomatic relations with Beijing instead of Taipei.

Sin embargo, Drew Thompson, visiting senior researcher at the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy at the National University of Singapore and former US Department of Defense official, said that the majority of the world treated Taiwan as it was. país independiente, y por ello, debe considerarse que cuenta con su propio espacio aereo.

“La realidad es que Taiwan exists. Taiwan is autonomous. It is effectively independent of any other country. It elects its own government, collects its own taxes, defends its borders. Then, para todos los efectos, Taiwan is a country,” Thompson said. .

“Bajo ese principio, entonces tal vez decidos que se applica el derecho internacional, en cuyo caso el espacio de Taiwan se extiende 12 miles más allá de su línea de base. Beyond the limit of 12 miles there are international waters, international air space “, he added.

Thompson said that there was also a question of precedent and that the army of China had tacitly recognized it.

A pesar del “hecho de que el PLA (Ejército Popular de Liberation) does not recognize Taiwan, or China does not recognize Taiwan, they respect the aerial space of Taiwan,” he said.

The Chinese commercial aviation companies also respected Taiwan’s aerial space, Thompson said, recognizing a “convention that effectively treats Taiwan as independent under civil aviation guidelines.”

Sin embargo, China sostenien que dado que Taiwan es su territorio sovereigno, sus aviones militares no necesitan permiso de Taiwan ni de ninguna otra entita para volar en el espacio aereo territorial de la isla. A los ojos de Beijing, the aerial space of Taiwan is essentially the aerial space of China.

Entonces, ¿podría volar China sus aviones militares sobre Taiwan?

“Iría en contra del derecho internacional, pero el derecho internacional es endeble y está abierto a la interpretación de cada país que decide si quiere o no seguirlo o hacerlo cumplir,” said Thompson.

But, what is “international law”? La Corte Internacional de Justicia de La Haya says that it evaluates cases based on “convenciones internationales”, como tratados como UNCLOS; “costumbre internacional, como prueba de una práctica general aceptada como derecho”, es decir, lo que suelen hacer los países en una determinada circunstancia, y “los principios generales del derecho recognized by las naciones civilizadas”.

El sitio web de las Naciones Unidas says que el derecho internacional se hace respectar “de muchas maneras — por cortes, tribunales, tratados multilaterales — y por el Consejo de Seguridad, que puede aprobar misiones de mantenimiento de la peace, imposing sanctions o autorizar el uso de la fuerza cuando hay una menace para la paz y la seguridad internationales, si lo considera necesario”.

But remember, the five permanent members of the Security Council, including China and the United States, have veto power, but what they can block is any attempt by the UN to fulfill international law.

“Ha visto a China ignore las normas del derecho internacional a diestra y siniestra durante decasas, sobre todo en el South China Sea,” said Thompson, referring to las military installations that China has built on various islands despite the fact that an international tribunal rechazó sus reclamos de soberanía en 2016.

¿Cuál es la diferencia entre el espacio aereo y una zona de identificación de defensa aerea?

Taiwan a menudo ha estado en los titulares recententes cuando los aviones de combate chinos han ingresado a su zona de identificación de defensa aérea.

On Tuesday, for example, Taiwan said that 21 Chinese aircraft entered their ADIZ, and there were almost daily incursions of EPL combat aircraft during the last month.

Sin embargo, estas zonas no son lo mismo que el espacio aereo territorial. More fall, there are unilaterally declared amortization areas that extend beyond the territorial air space, which are specifically configured before the defensive forces before reacting when they approach foreign aircraft. Consequently, no todos los países tienen una zone de identificación de defensa aérea.

The Federal Aviation Administration of the EU. define the zones as “a designated area of ​​aerial space on land or water inside the country in which a country requires identification, location and control of immediate and positive aircraft traffic in the country’s national security”.

Mercedes Trent, de la Federación de Científicos Estadounidenses, escribió en una revision de 2020 que “es costumbre que las aeronaves extranjeras que ingresan a tales zonas se identifiquen y busquen previa authorization del país que controla la zona antes de ingressar”.

Si las aeronaves extranjeras ingresan a una zona de identificación de defensa aérea sin permiso, la jurisdicción de origen a menudo mobilizará aviones de combate para advertir a los intrusos. This has happened numerous times when the Chinese fighter jets entered Taiwan’s air defense identification zone in the last few years.

¿Cómo estableció Taiwan su zone de identificación de defensa aérea?

The identification zone of air defense of the island was actually a creation of the United States, which established similar zones in Japan, South Korea and the Philippines to protect the Chinese and Russian overflights, according to Trent, from the Federation of Scientists Estadounidenses.

Part of the zone of identification of air defense of Taiwan actually extends over mainland China, but Chinese flights are challenged by Taiwan only as they cross the media line, the middle point between the island and the continent over the Strait of Taiwan.

¿China tiene una zone de identificación de defensa aérea?

Yes. Está sobre el Mar de China Oriental y cubre la disputada cadena de islas Senkaku/Diaoyu, que está controla por Japón.

China’s air defense identification zone superimposes that of Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. Sin embargo, no cubre la isla de Taiwan en sí, deteniendo justo antes de su extremo norte.

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