- Dalia Ventura
- BBC News Mundo
Menu la cencia nos disconnected, ya veces por razones más allá de la obvias.
The point, for example, is that the affirmation is that a meta is a wound in a watering can, salted in water, as if it were pounding in the tibia and adjusting the temperature, not curling the pelvis and moving evenly.
Evoca algo tan poderoso that politicians and gurus use us frequently to start the action. Pero al oírla, algunos nos preguntamos: What’s the difference between being able to shoot and shoot in the water?
To weigh as much as the result of an experiment, then the fire. (De hecho, según expertsos, apenas la temperatura le resulta incómoda, la rana en agua tibia saltaría, mientras que la otra, no, pues, as cualquier otra criatura que cayera en agua hirviendo, moriría).
But in the case of otro famoso studi igualmente perturbadoras the water flows in cylinders of water and observes the currents, the situation is different.
This was done by the eminent biologist, psychobiologist and geneticist Curt Richter.
For those who experiment with and mediate do not ask “why” at the same time as expecting the result, published in the 1957 journal Psychosomatic Medicine, to answer the following question:
“We are studying differences in stress response of salvage and domestic rats “.
Richter published his article because the rabbit was found in the rats a phenomenon similar to the study by Walter Cannon, one of the most disgusted physiologists of the XX century.
In an article titled “Muerte vudú”, published in 1942, Cannon había mencionado varios cases of mysterious deaths, sittings and psychogenic apparatuses, in various parts of the world, which lasted for 24 hours deprived of a social right .
“A Brazilian condom condensed and sentimental by a heck of a bit, indefatigable in front of you emotionally responsive and is pronounced, fallacy in a matter of hours (…) Uin Mauritius, New Zealand, which is a fruit-bearing and, until further notice, proven to be a taboo place. Al mediodía del día siguiente, murió“.
Having undergone a brief revision of the evidence, Cannon has taken the reality out of this phenomenon and said: acabar con la vida del ser humano? “.
Explicitly Richter, Cannon agrees with the conclusion that production is produced as a consequence of the stage of shock produced by the continuous adrenaline release.
The result is that, as it were, it is expected that in essence circumstances the individuals being created, among other things, breathing agitation and corazón latiría cada vez más rapidly, “which gradually leads to a state of constant contraction and, in the last instance, to death in systole”.
As a result, Richter’s studio with random sampling rates.
Nadar o ahogarse
In a laboratory at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, EE.UU, Richter had a method of measuring domestic rats — even if they were born, bred, and bred in laboratories — in tubes of water that could not be escaped, while observing each other. in agua and different temperatures ante de ahogarse.
But there was a problem: “all the temperatures, a small number of wall ratios within 5-10 minutes away from the inertia, so that in some cases they appear more than reasonable, up to 81 hours”.
The variations are unbalanced large for the results to be significant.
“The wine solution of an inesperada fuente“el hallazgo del fenómeno de la muerte súbita”.
¿Seria que estaba ocurriendo lo que había studiodo Cannon años atris?
Richter modify the experiment. It is not necessary to recite the bigotry of the rats, “possibly allowing the most important means of contact with the outside world”, as it introduces, in addition to the domestic rats, hybrids and other species recruited around them.
The majority of domestic rats ranging from 40 to 60 hours before death, the hybrids (domestic and salvage crosses) “murieron at a very fast time”.
Pero The most surprising thing is that the salvos, which are so cold and extremely rare, say “1-15 minutes away from the investment in the French”.
Now, do you think that supper that the deadly suckers sucked at the place where the great adrenaline rush due to the accelerated stress of the lattice of coziness and respiration?
The result is that the reciprocal data show that “the morphological animals conceal a cardiac rhythm in the course of an acceleration”. The respiration is slowed down and the temperature of the body is dissipated as soon as the coolant flows.
Pero, por valiosa que fuera esa observacija, no fue por ella que el experimento se hizo tan famoso.
Había algo m ques que na se podía ignorar.
“¿Qué mata a estas ratas?”, He asked. “Qu Por qué todas las ratas salvajes, feroces y aggresivas mueren rapidly, mentras que eso solo le pocas de las ratas domestas mansas tratadas de manera similar?”.
The sound, the subtraction, the algae of the morvane salvos including the ones that are measured in the water, leading the investigators to the tenos in the manos.
Richter identifies the important factors before you:
- involuntary restraint to retain salvage rats, abolishing the repentance and finally all the escape expectations;
- the confinement in the window glass, eliminating the possibility of all escape and at the same time amenazándolos with inhomogeneous ingestion
In order to disperse the reaction of light or honey, Richter only saw the time of dispersal.
“It’s the case that there are subjects in the manifold or confinades in the recipient for nadar, the rats are concentrated in a situation against which there is no defense. mano e impedidas de moverse; whereas literally ‘se rinden’“.
For other reasons, should the instinct of superimposition be spread out in all cases, ¿why the rates of domesticity are so convenient that they do not continue to reach the final point of salvation?
Are you all there ¿pod¿an las ratas tener “convicciones” distintas … y hasta esperanzas?
Richter volvóó to modify the experiment: tomaba ratas similares y las ponía en el frasco. But, just before that murieran, the basket, the composition of a rat, the soltaba by a moment and place the volv aa a meter al agua.
“Así”, escribió, “the rates rise rapidly that the situation in reality is not desperate; from part of entonces, wanting to be aggressive, intentionally escaping and not darse señales by vencidas “.
Ese pequeño interludio marcaba una gran difference.
The rats that experimented with one breath nadaban mucho más: al saber que no estaban condenadas, que la situacn ne estaba perdida, que era posible que una maniga las salvara, luchaban por vivir.
“Thras eliminar la desesperanza”, escriió Richter, “las ratas no mueren”.
Death by conviction
Richter’s intention was to contribute to the investigation of the famine, which, as a result, did not succeed only in “primitive cultures”, as Cannon said.
“Durante guerra is informed of a considerable number of inexplicable deaths among the soldiers of the armed forces of this country (EE.UU.).
“It is interesting to note that, according to Dr. RS Fisher, a forensic doctor in the city of Baltimore, a number of people who could not afford to record small doses of venous, definitively supplementary, or somewhat negligent; fallecen as a result of the conviction in your death “.
Experiment yourself to test miles in pharmaceutical laboratories to try antidepressant components In 1977, investigator Roger Porsolt revealed that the rates were so high that the summons was overrun by time.
As colofón, gracies and the actions of the organization protecting the beds of the animal PETA, the practice of hacking from laboratory ratios is considerably reduced.
The experimental crucifixion lessons live on in psychology.
Además, like the false experiment with las ranas, is known for its natural internal flow, as well as the idea that the expectation is essentially the creation of the hole for cooking but its screws in the middle of a desperate situation.
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