Berlin.- The world’s top body of climate scientists said on Monday that global temperatures will exceed a critical risk threshold unless greenhouse gas emissions are cut faster than countries pledge to do, warning of the consequences of inaction, although it also highlighted hopeful signs. of progress.
UN Secretary-General António Guterres said the report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) revealed “a series of breaching climate promises” by governments and companies, which they accuse of fueling global warming by sticking to fossil fuels.
He declared: “It is a shameful file that records the empty promises that lead us towards an uninhabitable world.”
In the Paris climate agreement in 2015, governments agreed to keep global warming well below 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 Fahrenheit) this century, with an ideal target of 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 Fahrenheit). However, temperatures did indeed rise by more than 2 F (1.1 C) during pre-industrial times, leading to measurable increases in disasters such as flash floods, heat extremes, severe hurricanes, and longer-lasting wildfires. At risk and cost governments billions of dollars.
Projected global emissions (from national commitments) make the 1.5°C limit of global warming out of reach and make it difficult to reach the 2°C limit after 2030.
The report’s co-chair, James Sciaa of Imperial College London, told The Associated Press that, in other words, “if we continue business as usual, we won’t even limit the temperature rise to two degrees, let alone 1.5.”
Current investments in fossil fuel infrastructure and the deforestation of large areas of forest for agricultural purposes undermine the massive emissions reductions needed to achieve the Paris target, according to the report.
Skia said emissions in 2019 were about 12% higher than in 2010 and 54% higher than in 1990.
The report’s authors note that the rate of emissions growth slowed from 2.1% per year in the early years of this century to 1.3% per year between 2010 and 2019. But they expressed “high certainty” that unless countries redouble their efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, The planet will be between 2.4 and 3.5 degrees Celsius (4.3 and 6.3 degrees Fahrenheit). And the planet will be much hotter by the end of the century, a level that experts say will have strong repercussions for a large portion of the world’s population.
“Limiting temperature rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius requires that greenhouse gas emissions peak no later than 2025 and be reduced by 43% by 2030,” he said.
The Committee recognized that it would be difficult to achieve such a reduction without implementing drastic measures throughout the economy. The world will likely exceed 1.5 degrees Celsius and then need to do work to lower temperatures again, such as removing massive amounts of carbon dioxide – a major greenhouse gas – from the atmosphere.
Many experts say this is not possible with current technologies, and even if it could be achieved it would be much more expensive than avoiding emissions.
The thousands-page report does not attribute responsibility to any particular country. But the numbers show that much of the carbon dioxide already in the atmosphere was released by the rich nations that were the first to burn coal, oil and gas since the start of the Industrial Revolution.
The UN panel noted that 40% of the emissions that have occurred since then come from Europe and North America. East Asia, including China, is credited with just over 12%. But China overtook the United States as the world’s largest emitter in the mid-2000s.
Guterres said many countries and companies have used recent climate summits to paint a hopeful picture of their efforts to reduce emissions while continuing to invest in fossil fuels and other polluting activities.
He declared that “some governments and business leaders say one thing and do another.” To put it more clearly: they lie. The results will be catastrophic.”
However, there is still hope, according to the report.
The authors highlight a variety of ways in which the world can get back on track to meet the 2°C target, and even, with great effort, return to 1.5°C, after that threshold is crossed. This may require measures such as removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by natural or artificial means, but also through potentially dangerous techniques such as pumping aerosols into the sky to reflect sunlight.
Among the recommended solutions are the rapid abandonment of fossil fuels in favor of renewable energies, such as solar and wind energy, electrification of transport, reduced meat consumption, more efficient use of resources and financial support. Withstand these measures without assistance.