Where are the grains produced in Ukraine?

(CNN Español) — A little more than a week after an agreement between Ukraine and Russia before allowing the exportation of grain in the middle of the war, the first ship loaded with cereals set sail this Monday from the port of Odesa.

The ship Razoni, with the flag of Sierra Leone, is loaded with 26,500 metric tons (equivalent to 29,000 short tons, the unit of mass used in the EU) of Ukrainian corn and was found navigating the Black Sea in the direction of the Bosphorus Strait , a través del cual llegará al mar Mediterráneo y los mercados globales, según el rastreador satelital de barcos MarineTraffic. Su destino informado es Tripoli, en Líbano.

The agreement between Ukraine and Russia was signed on July 22 and counted with the mediation of Turkey, which controlled the Bosphorus and monitored the fulfillment of the pact, and the auspiciousness of the United Nations.

Permit la exportação de cinco miliones de tons de cereals de Ukraina al mes, través de un corridor segura en el Black mar, e implica un al fuego entre Ukraina y Rusia, en guerra since el 24 de February, en torno a este corridor maritime

The agreement entered into doubt only a day after it was signed, when Russia attacked the port facilities in Odesa with cruise missiles. Pero al momento las partes han continuado en su implementación.

Since the beginning of the war, it is estimated that there are 20 million tons of Ukrainian grain exported after the harvest, and I hope that the agreement will allow the grain to enter the markets and contribute to averting a food crisis about which it has warned. ONU.

¿Pero hacia dónde van los granos producidos en Ukraina?

De acuerdo con Departamento de Agricultura de Estados Unidos, Ukraina exported cereals in 2021 por un valor de US$ 27,800 million.

The agreement between Ukraine and Russia will allow the exportation of five million monthly tons of Ukrainian grains across the Black Sea.

Union Europea, China y la India, principales destinos

The main market of Ukraine is the European Union, which concentrated US$ 7,700 million in purchases, followed by China with US$ 4,200 million and India with US$ 2,000 million.

The three agricultural products that lead Ukrainian exports are sunflower seeds (US$ 6,400 million), corn (US$ 5,900 million) and wheat (US$ 5,100 million). Le sigune las semillas de colza (US$ 1,700 million), la cebada (US$ 1,300 million) y el expeller de girasol (US$ 1,200 million), un byproducto de la molienda de girasol que usa como alimento para ganado.

India is the principal buyer of Ukrainian sunflower seeds, while China is the principal buyer of corn, cebada and sunflower expeller.

Los países de la Unión Europea, en su conjunto los majores compradors de productos agrículanos ucranianos, lead the purchase of rapeseed (used before making canola oil), and occupy the second place in corn, sunflower seed and sunflower expeller.

Egypt, Indonesia and Turkey, principals compradors de trigo

Within the EU, the principal destinations are Poland (6.19% of total Ukrainian exports), Germany (4.02%), Italy (3.72%), the Netherlands (3.44%), Hungary (2 .87%) and Spain (2.43%), according to the Observatorio de Complejidad Económica.

Other important compradors are Egypt (principal comprador de trigo and important comprador de maíz), Turkey (tercer comprador de trigo y segundo de cebada), Indonesia (segundo mayor comprador trigo), Pakistán (canola), Saudi Arabia (cebada), Belarús ( expeller de girasol) y Reino Unido (canola).

How much will the war between Russia and Ukraine last? 1:17

What is the agreement between Ukraine and Russia before exporting cereals?

These are some of the main provisions of the agreement signed on July 22 by Ukraine, Russia and Turkey under the auspices of the UN:

  • Ukranian ships will guide the entry and exit of grain-cargo boats through a corridor in the port waters mined in the Black Sea;
  • In total, 5 million tons of grain can be moved;
  • Russia will accept a show while they realize los envíos a través de tres puertos ucranianos, incluido el de Odesa, y en torno a cualquier buque afectado al transloca;
  • Turkey will inspect the boats before dissipating the fears of Russia that they can carry arms of contraband, and establish a Joint Coordination Center in Istanbul before acting in case of conflict;
  • Se estima que podría pasar semanas antes de que comiencen los primeros envíos, dueto a los numeros detalles logísticos que deben sortearse.

Russia and Ukraine are two of the major exporters of cereals, especially wheat and sunflower, from the world, and since the beginning of the war, Ukrainian exports have been seriously limited by the conflict, especially since Russia controlled the waters of the Black Sea. cuya costa se asientan los principales puertos ucranianos.

Ukraine has 120 days before exporting grain 1:35

Both countries represent a third of the world’s exports of wheat and 60% of sunflower oil, and of each 100 calories of food sold in the world, 12 come from Russia and Ukraine, according to data from the International Research Institute sobre Políticas Alimentarias.

In times of peace, Ukraine exports three quarters of its production, and 90% of these exports go through ports in the Black Sea, according to information from the European Commission.

The decline in Ukrainian exports and the global situation caused by the war have impacted the global food prices, given that there are only 20 million tons of grain retained in Ukraine.

According to June data from the Organization of the United Nations for Food and Agriculture (FAO), food prices in the world fell by 17% since the beginning of the war in February, and by 21% in the case of los granos

With information from Rob Picheta and Vasco Cotovio.

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